Click here to send us your inquires or call (852) 36130518
10 Questions on Agent Orange


1 > What is Agent Orange?
2 > Why is Agent Orange dangerous?
3 > How much dioxin has been sprayed in Vietnam?
4 > What are the effects of dioxin?
5 > How many people have been exposed to herbicides in Vietnam?
6 > What is Operation Hades?
7 > Have the USA taken responsability for the damages caused by herbicides in Vietnam?
8 > Have the Agent Orange victims taken civil action?
9 > And today?
10 > Dioxin, a worldwide issue?


1 > What is Agent Orange?
It was the herbicide most heavily used by the American army during the Vietnam war. Herbicides were used to defoliate forests (to prevent the Viet Cong from hiding), to clear military areas and to destroy enemy crops. Agent Orange is actually pink-brownish. Its name comes from the orange-coloured bands that appeared on the drums in which Agent Orange was stored. Other herbicides used by the US army include Agents White, Blue, Pink, Green and Purple.

2 > Why is Agent Orange dangerous?
Two thirds of the herbicides used during the Vietnam war, notably Agent Orange (but not only Agent Orange), contained 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid for its defoliation abilities. But the production process of that acid was such that the 2,4,5-T acid obtained was more or less contaminated with an extremely toxic substance: the infamous 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).

3 > How much dioxin has been sprayed in Vietnam?
The quantity of dioxin varied, depending on the herbicide and the manufacturer. According to the latest estimations [1], between 1961 and 1971, the US army has sprayed more than 300 kilograms of TCDD dioxin, mainly in the Southern and Central Vietnam, but also in Laos and Cambodia. To put things in perspective, the international health norms state that one person should not be exposed to more than picograms of dioxin per day. A picogram is a millionth of a millionth of a gram.

[1] J.M. Stellman, S.D. Stellman, R. Christian, T. Weber et C. Tomasallo, "The extent and patterns of usage of Agent Orange and other herbicides in Việt Nam", Nature, Volume 422, Avril 2003.

4 > What are the effects of dioxin?
Dioxin provokes cancers, foetal malformations, skin diseases... It also affects the immune system, the reproductive system and the nervous system.

5 > How many people have been exposed to herbicides in Vietnam?
According to the latest estimations [1], between 2.1 and 4.8 millions Vietnamese people were directly exposed to herbicides from 1961 to1971. One needs to add to this figure an unknown number of Cambodians, Laotians, American civilians and soldiers, and their various allies from Australia, Canada, New-Zealand and South-Korea. However, the total number of victims goes probably beyond because dioxin can be transmitted by contamination of the food chain : breast milk, cow milk, consumption of contaminated meat and fish.

[1] J.M. Stellman, S.D. Stellman, R. Christian, T. Weber et C. Tomasallo, "The extent and patterns of usage of Agent Orange and other herbicides in Viêt Nam", Nature, Volume 422, April 2003.

6 > What is Operation Hades?
It is the original name of the American military operation of defoliation by aerial means in Vietnam. This operation was given the green light by the Kennedy administration in 1961, and ended in 1971. Because "Hades" was not PR-friendly name (Hades is the god of the dead), it was changed shortly after into Ranch Hand.

7 > Have the USA taken responsability for the damages caused by herbicides in Vietnam?
No, the USA refuses all responsibility, and have never paid a cent to the many victims of Agent Orange (and other herbicides) in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos.

8 > Have the Agent Orange victims taken civil action?
The American veteran victims of Agent Orange took civil action against the Agent Orange manufacturers, because they did not have the right to do so against the American government. In 1984, the AO manufacturers signed a class-action settlement with the associations of veterans : in exchange of the end of all civil actions, the manufacturers agreed to pay $180 millions to a compensation fund for the American veteran victims of Agent Orange. At the beginning of 2004, the Vietnamese association of victims of Agent Orange/Dioxin has filed a US civil action against the manufacturers of Agent Orange. The two main manufacturers are Monsanto and Dow Chemical.

9 > And today?
Thirty years after the end of the war, the effects of dioxin are still present in Vietnam. There remains a non-negligible quantity of dioxin in a few hot-spots in Vietnam. There is now in Vietnam a third generation of victims of the American military herbicides.

10 > Dioxin, a worldwide issue?
Dioxin is a worldwide problem, not just in Vietnam. Indeed, common usual industrial activities involuntarily produce dioxin, notably incineration and fiber-bleaching for paper or textiles. The famous industrial accident of Seveso in Italy (1976) can attest to the dangers of dioxin all over the world.


雪茄网购| 哈瓦那雪茄| 雪茄价格| 雪茄烟网购| 雪茄专卖店| 雪茄怎么抽| 雪茄吧| 陈年雪茄| 大卫杜夫雪茄| 保利华雪茄| 古巴雪茄专卖网| 烟斗烟丝| 小雪茄| 金特罗雪茄| 蒙特雪茄| 网上哪里可以买雪茄| 限量版雪茄| 雪茄专卖网| 雪茄哪里买| 买雪茄去哪个网站| 古巴雪茄价格| 雪茄海淘| 帕拉森雪茄| 罗密欧朱丽叶雪茄 | 古巴雪茄品牌 | 古巴雪茄多少钱一只| 推荐一个卖雪茄的网站 | 帕特加斯d4 |

噴畫| banner| banner 價錢| Backdrop| Backdrop 價錢| 易拉架| 易拉架 價錢| 橫額| 印刷| 橫額印刷| 印刷 報價| 貼紙| 貼紙印刷| 宣傳單張| 宣傳單張印刷| 展覽攤位| 書刊 印刷| Bannershop| Ebanner| Eprint| 印刷公司| 海報| 攤位| pvc板| 易拉架設計| 海報印刷| 展板| 禮封| 易拉架尺寸| foamboard| hk print| hong kong printing| Printing| 喜帖| 過膠| 信封| backdrop| print100| 咭片皇| 印館|

邮件营销| Email Marketing 電郵推廣| edm营销| edm| 营销软件| 推广软件| 邮件群发软件| Mailchimp| Hubspot| Sendinblue| ActiveCampaign| Aweber| Mailchimp| benchmark| SMS|

wms| vending machine| barcode scanner| QR code scanner| SME IT| it solution| rfid tag| rfid| rfid reader| it outsourcing| POS label| IRLS| IT Support| system integration| software development| inventory management system| label printing| digital labelling| barcode label| Self Service Kiosk| Kiosk| Voice Picking| POS scanner| POS printer| System Integrator| printing labels| Denso| inventory management| warehouse management| Business service| vending| mobile app development| terminal handheld| printer hong kong| | thermal printer| thermal label printer| mdm| mobile solutions| mdm solutions| mobile device management|

Tomtop| Online Einkaufen| Zeblaze| XT175| xiaomi m365| xiaomi Roborock S50| Roborock S50| Wltoys| VISUO XS812| Viltrox EF-M2| Vernee T3 Pro| Ulefone Power 5| Tronxy X5S| SONOFF| SJCAM SJ8 PRO| Rowin WS-20| MXQ PRO| MJX Bugs 5W| lixada| LEMFO LEM8| lemfo lem4 pro| LEMFO| koogeek| kkmoon| JJPRO X5| hubsan h501s x4| hubsan h501s| Hubsan| hohem isteady pro| goolrc| Feiyu| Feiyu Tech G6| Ender 3| Creality Ender 3| Bugs 5W| anet a8 3d printer review| Anet| Anet A4| Anet A6| Anet A8| andoer| ammoon| amazfit bip|

electric bike| e bike| electric bicycle| electric bikes for adults| electric tricycle| electric trike| folding electric bike| mid drive electric bike| electric fat bike| fat tire electric bike| best electric bike|

地產代理| Hong Kong Office Rental| 租辦公室| office for lease| office leasing| 物業投資| office building| Commercial Building| Grade A Office| 寫字樓| 商業大廈| 甲級寫字樓| 頂手| 租寫字樓| Rent Office| 地產新聞| office for sale|

太古廣場| 海富中心| 中港城| 統一中心| 瑞安中心| 力寶中心| 信德中心| 新港中心| 中環中心| 合和中心| 康宏廣場| 星光行| 鷹君中心| 遠東金融中心| 港晶中心| 無限極廣場| 光大中心| 中遠大廈| 海港中心| 新世界大廈| 永安中心| 南洋中心| 永安集團大廈| 華潤大廈| 永安廣場| 朗豪坊| 時代廣場| 新世紀廣場| 太古城中心| 希慎廣場| 交易廣場| 創紀之城| 港威大廈| 企業廣場| 新文華中心| 置地廣場| 怡和大廈| 世貿中心| 太子大廈| 中信大廈| 禮頓中心| 中銀大廈| 銅鑼灣廣場| 環球大廈| 海濱廣場| 新鴻基中心| 萬宜大廈| Tower 535| 高銀金融國際中心| 海濱匯| 皇后大道中9號| 國際金融中心| 半島中心| 利園三期| 天文臺道8號| 信和廣場| 娛樂行| 南豐大廈| 帝國中心| 中環廣場| 美國銀行中心| 尖沙咀中心| 新東海商業中心| Chater House| Nexxus Building| One Island East| 中匯大廈| Fairmont House| 華懋廣場| 中建大廈| 北京道1號| 胡忠大廈| Central Plaza| The Centrium| LHT Tower| China Building| AIA Central| Crawford House| Exchange Tower| AIA Tower| World Wide House| One Kowloon| The Gateway | One Island South| Jardine House| Millennium City | Exchange Square| Times Square | Pacific Place| Admiralty Centre| United Centre| Lippo Centre| Shun Tak Centre| Silvercord| The Center| Mira Place| Ocean Centre| Cosco Tower| Harcourt House| Cheung Kong Center|

private school hong kong| English primary school Hong Kong| primary education| top schools in Hong Kong| best international schools hong kong| best primary schools in hong kong| school day| boarding school Hong Kong|